Patchwork [1/1] scripts: add get_maintainer script

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Submitter Trevor Woerner
Date Jan. 31, 2014, 10:47 p.m.
Message ID <1391208456-23049-2-git-send-email-trevor.woerner@linaro.org>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/66157/
State New
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Comments

Trevor Woerner - Jan. 31, 2014, 10:47 p.m.
Add the Linux kernel's "get_maintainer.pl" script so it is available for use
with OE/Yocto layers. This script departs from the Linux kernel's version in a
couple of minor ways:

	- here there is no "penguin_chief", just an "oe_chief"
	- it is very hard to determine if the user is located at the top of a
	  valid OE/Yocto layer or not (i.e. some layers have 'conf/local.conf'
	  files, but sometimes (e.g. openembedded-core the top-level
	  directory is a placeholder and the "real" layers are below)
	  therefore don't try to make this determination; the only
	  requirement is that there be a ".git" directory
	- not all layers (yet!) contain a "MAINTAINERS" file, therefore be
	  able to work without one
	- add all the patch tags specified in
	  http://www.linuxfoundation.org/content/54-patch-formatting
	- remove Linux kernel-specific wording/references

Signed-off-by: Trevor Woerner <trevor.woerner@linaro.org>
---
 scripts/get_maintainer.pl | 2140 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 2140 insertions(+)
 create mode 100755 scripts/get_maintainer.pl
Otavio Salvador - Feb. 3, 2014, 12:23 a.m.
Hello Trevor,

On Fri, Jan 31, 2014 at 8:47 PM, Trevor Woerner
<trevor.woerner@linaro.org> wrote:
> Add the Linux kernel's "get_maintainer.pl" script so it is available for use
> with OE/Yocto layers. This script departs from the Linux kernel's version in a
> couple of minor ways:
>
>         - here there is no "penguin_chief", just an "oe_chief"
>         - it is very hard to determine if the user is located at the top of a
>           valid OE/Yocto layer or not (i.e. some layers have 'conf/local.conf'
>           files, but sometimes (e.g. openembedded-core the top-level
>           directory is a placeholder and the "real" layers are below)
>           therefore don't try to make this determination; the only
>           requirement is that there be a ".git" directory
>         - not all layers (yet!) contain a "MAINTAINERS" file, therefore be
>           able to work without one
>         - add all the patch tags specified in
>           http://www.linuxfoundation.org/content/54-patch-formatting
>         - remove Linux kernel-specific wording/references
>
> Signed-off-by: Trevor Woerner <trevor.woerner@linaro.org>

I like to idea and I second this pull request, the only thing I would
like to see added is the possibility of grabing the maintainers for
boards from the machine .conf file. This is the way we're using at
meta-fsl-arm and meta-fsl-arm-extra. What do you think?
Trevor Woerner - Feb. 3, 2014, 12:51 a.m.
Hi Otavio,

Thanks for taking a look at my patch.

On 02/02/14 19:23, Otavio Salvador wrote:
> I like to idea and I second this pull request, the only thing I would
> like to see added is the possibility of grabing the maintainers for
> boards from the machine .conf file. This is the way we're using at
> meta-fsl-arm and meta-fsl-arm-extra. What do you think? 

To be honest I don't have much experience with perl, this script is in
perl simply because that's the way it comes to us from the Linux kernel
(although I was able to understand enough of it to be able to make the
changes required so it would fit into this project). I'm quite sure,
with StackOverflow by my side, I'd be more than able to make these
changes :-)

However... the MAINTAINERS syntax[1] does allow for "F", "N", "X", and
"K" clauses, to wit:

	F: Files and directories with wildcard patterns.
	   A trailing slash includes all files and subdirectory files.
	   F:	drivers/net/	all files in and below drivers/net
	   F:	drivers/net/*	all files in drivers/net, but not below
	   F:	*/net/*		all files in "any top level directory"/net
	   One pattern per line.  Multiple F: lines acceptable.
	N: Files and directories with regex patterns.
	   N:	[^a-z]tegra	all files whose path contains the word tegra
	   One pattern per line.  Multiple N: lines acceptable.
	   scripts/get_maintainer.pl has different behavior for files that
	   match F: pattern and matches of N: patterns.  By default,
	   get_maintainer will not look at git log history when an F: pattern
	   match occurs.  When an N: match occurs, git log history is used
	   to also notify the people that have git commit signatures.
	X: Files and directories that are NOT maintained, same rules as F:
	   Files exclusions are tested before file matches.
	   Can be useful for excluding a specific subdirectory, for instance:
	   F:	net/
	   X:	net/ipv6/
	   matches all files in and below net excluding net/ipv6/
	K: Keyword perl extended regex pattern to match content in a
	   patch or file.  For instance:
	   K: of_get_profile
	      matches patches or files that contain "of_get_profile"
	   K: \b(printk|pr_(info|err))\b
	      matches patches or files that contain one or more of the words
	      printk, pr_info or pr_err
	   One regex pattern per line.  Multiple K: lines acceptable.


As you can see, use of these clauses would cover your use case.

What I was hoping for is that this script would be added to the project,
then I could go about creating MAINTAINERS files for the various layers
which would incorporate the information to which you referred above in a
more standard, cross-project way. If you feel strongly about keeping the
maintainers information in these files and this is the only thing
holding up the script's inclusion I'd be happy to make the necessary
modifications. But personally I'd prefer to use the existing MAINTAINERS
syntax instead.

Would moving that information into a standard top-level MAINTAINERS file
suffice? Is there a reason it needs to be in those files (perhaps some
other tool is processing them that couldn't be switched to process a
MAINTAINERS file instead)?

Best regards,
    Trevor


[1] https://www.kernel.org/doc/linux/MAINTAINERS

Patch

diff --git a/scripts/get_maintainer.pl b/scripts/get_maintainer.pl
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..0367eab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/scripts/get_maintainer.pl
@@ -0,0 +1,2140 @@ 
+#!/usr/bin/env perl
+# (C) 2014, Trevor Woerner <trevor.woerner@linaro.org>
+#           edited to work for OpenEmbedded
+# (c) 2007, Joe Perches <joe@perches.com>
+#           created from checkpatch.pl
+#
+# Print selected MAINTAINERS information for
+# the files modified in a patch or for a file
+#
+# usage: perl scripts/get_maintainer.pl [OPTIONS] <patch>
+#        perl scripts/get_maintainer.pl [OPTIONS] -f <file>
+#
+# Licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL License version 2
+
+use strict;
+
+my $P = $0;
+my $V = '0.26';
+
+use Getopt::Long qw(:config no_auto_abbrev);
+
+my $lk_path = "./";
+my $email = 1;
+my $email_usename = 1;
+my $email_maintainer = 1;
+my $email_list = 1;
+my $email_subscriber_list = 0;
+my $email_git_oe_chiefs = 0;
+my $email_git = 0;
+my $email_git_all_signature_types = 0;
+my $email_git_blame = 0;
+my $email_git_blame_signatures = 1;
+my $email_git_fallback = 1;
+my $email_git_min_signatures = 1;
+my $email_git_max_maintainers = 5;
+my $email_git_min_percent = 5;
+my $email_git_since = "1-year-ago";
+my $email_hg_since = "-365";
+my $interactive = 0;
+my $email_remove_duplicates = 1;
+my $email_use_mailmap = 1;
+my $output_multiline = 1;
+my $output_separator = ", ";
+my $output_roles = 0;
+my $output_rolestats = 0;
+my $scm = 0;
+my $web = 0;
+my $subsystem = 0;
+my $status = 0;
+my $keywords = 1;
+my $sections = 0;
+my $file_emails = 0;
+my $from_filename = 0;
+my $pattern_depth = 0;
+my $version = 0;
+my $help = 0;
+
+my $vcs_used = 0;
+
+my $exit = 0;
+
+my %commit_author_hash;
+my %commit_signer_hash;
+
+my @oe_chief = ();
+push(@oe_chief, "Richard Purdie:richard.purdie\@linux-foundation.org");
+
+my @oe_chief_names = ();
+foreach my $chief (@oe_chief) {
+    if ($chief =~ m/^(.*):(.*)/) {
+	my $chief_name = $1;
+	my $chief_addr = $2;
+	push(@oe_chief_names, $chief_name);
+    }
+}
+my $oe_chiefs = "\(" . join("|", @oe_chief_names) . "\)";
+
+# Signature types of people who are either
+# 	a) responsible for the code in question, or
+# 	b) familiar enough with it to give relevant feedback
+my @signature_tags = ();
+push(@signature_tags, "Signed-off-by:");
+push(@signature_tags, "Acked-by:");
+push(@signature_tags, "Tested-by:");
+push(@signature_tags, "Reviewed-by:");
+push(@signature_tags, "Reported-by:");
+push(@signature_tags, "Cc:");
+
+my $signature_pattern = "\(" . join("|", @signature_tags) . "\)";
+
+# rfc822 email address - preloaded methods go here.
+my $rfc822_lwsp = "(?:(?:\\r\\n)?[ \\t])";
+my $rfc822_char = '[\\000-\\377]';
+
+# VCS command support: class-like functions and strings
+
+my %VCS_cmds;
+
+my %VCS_cmds_git = (
+    "execute_cmd" => \&git_execute_cmd,
+    "available" => '(which("git") ne "") && (-d ".git")',
+    "find_signers_cmd" =>
+	"git log --no-color --follow --since=\$email_git_since " .
+	    '--format="GitCommit: %H%n' .
+		      'GitAuthor: %an <%ae>%n' .
+		      'GitDate: %aD%n' .
+		      'GitSubject: %s%n' .
+		      '%b%n"' .
+	    " -- \$file",
+    "find_commit_signers_cmd" =>
+	"git log --no-color " .
+	    '--format="GitCommit: %H%n' .
+		      'GitAuthor: %an <%ae>%n' .
+		      'GitDate: %aD%n' .
+		      'GitSubject: %s%n' .
+		      '%b%n"' .
+	    " -1 \$commit",
+    "find_commit_author_cmd" =>
+	"git log --no-color " .
+	    '--format="GitCommit: %H%n' .
+		      'GitAuthor: %an <%ae>%n' .
+		      'GitDate: %aD%n' .
+		      'GitSubject: %s%n"' .
+	    " -1 \$commit",
+    "blame_range_cmd" => "git blame -l -L \$diff_start,+\$diff_length \$file",
+    "blame_file_cmd" => "git blame -l \$file",
+    "commit_pattern" => "^GitCommit: ([0-9a-f]{40,40})",
+    "blame_commit_pattern" => "^([0-9a-f]+) ",
+    "author_pattern" => "^GitAuthor: (.*)",
+    "subject_pattern" => "^GitSubject: (.*)",
+);
+
+my %VCS_cmds_hg = (
+    "execute_cmd" => \&hg_execute_cmd,
+    "available" => '(which("hg") ne "") && (-d ".hg")',
+    "find_signers_cmd" =>
+	"hg log --date=\$email_hg_since " .
+	    "--template='HgCommit: {node}\\n" .
+	                "HgAuthor: {author}\\n" .
+			"HgSubject: {desc}\\n'" .
+	    " -- \$file",
+    "find_commit_signers_cmd" =>
+	"hg log " .
+	    "--template='HgSubject: {desc}\\n'" .
+	    " -r \$commit",
+    "find_commit_author_cmd" =>
+	"hg log " .
+	    "--template='HgCommit: {node}\\n" .
+		        "HgAuthor: {author}\\n" .
+			"HgSubject: {desc|firstline}\\n'" .
+	    " -r \$commit",
+    "blame_range_cmd" => "",		# not supported
+    "blame_file_cmd" => "hg blame -n \$file",
+    "commit_pattern" => "^HgCommit: ([0-9a-f]{40,40})",
+    "blame_commit_pattern" => "^([ 0-9a-f]+):",
+    "author_pattern" => "^HgAuthor: (.*)",
+    "subject_pattern" => "^HgSubject: (.*)",
+);
+
+my $conf = which_conf(".get_maintainer.conf");
+if (-f $conf) {
+    my @conf_args;
+    open(my $conffile, '<', "$conf")
+	or warn "$P: Can't find a readable .get_maintainer.conf file $!\n";
+
+    while (<$conffile>) {
+	my $line = $_;
+
+	$line =~ s/\s*\n?$//g;
+	$line =~ s/^\s*//g;
+	$line =~ s/\s+/ /g;
+
+	next if ($line =~ m/^\s*#/);
+	next if ($line =~ m/^\s*$/);
+
+	my @words = split(" ", $line);
+	foreach my $word (@words) {
+	    last if ($word =~ m/^#/);
+	    push (@conf_args, $word);
+	}
+    }
+    close($conffile);
+    unshift(@ARGV, @conf_args) if @conf_args;
+}
+
+if (!GetOptions(
+		'email!' => \$email,
+		'git!' => \$email_git,
+		'git-all-signature-types!' => \$email_git_all_signature_types,
+		'git-blame!' => \$email_git_blame,
+		'git-blame-signatures!' => \$email_git_blame_signatures,
+		'git-fallback!' => \$email_git_fallback,
+		'git-oe-chiefs!' => \$email_git_oe_chiefs,
+		'git-min-signatures=i' => \$email_git_min_signatures,
+		'git-max-maintainers=i' => \$email_git_max_maintainers,
+		'git-min-percent=i' => \$email_git_min_percent,
+		'git-since=s' => \$email_git_since,
+		'hg-since=s' => \$email_hg_since,
+		'i|interactive!' => \$interactive,
+		'remove-duplicates!' => \$email_remove_duplicates,
+		'mailmap!' => \$email_use_mailmap,
+		'm!' => \$email_maintainer,
+		'n!' => \$email_usename,
+		'l!' => \$email_list,
+		's!' => \$email_subscriber_list,
+		'multiline!' => \$output_multiline,
+		'roles!' => \$output_roles,
+		'rolestats!' => \$output_rolestats,
+		'separator=s' => \$output_separator,
+		'subsystem!' => \$subsystem,
+		'status!' => \$status,
+		'scm!' => \$scm,
+		'web!' => \$web,
+		'pattern-depth=i' => \$pattern_depth,
+		'k|keywords!' => \$keywords,
+		'sections!' => \$sections,
+		'fe|file-emails!' => \$file_emails,
+		'f|file' => \$from_filename,
+		'v|version' => \$version,
+		'h|help|usage' => \$help,
+		)) {
+    die "$P: invalid argument - use --help if necessary\n";
+}
+
+if ($help != 0) {
+    usage();
+    exit 0;
+}
+
+if ($version != 0) {
+    print("${P} ${V}\n");
+    exit 0;
+}
+
+if (-t STDIN && !@ARGV) {
+    # We're talking to a terminal, but have no command line arguments.
+    die "$P: missing patchfile or -f file - use --help if necessary\n";
+}
+
+$output_multiline = 0 if ($output_separator ne ", ");
+$output_rolestats = 1 if ($interactive);
+$output_roles = 1 if ($output_rolestats);
+
+if ($sections) {
+    $email = 0;
+    $email_list = 0;
+    $scm = 0;
+    $status = 0;
+    $subsystem = 0;
+    $web = 0;
+    $keywords = 0;
+    $interactive = 0;
+} else {
+    my $selections = $email + $scm + $status + $subsystem + $web;
+    if ($selections == 0) {
+	die "$P:  Missing required option: email, scm, status, subsystem or web\n";
+    }
+}
+
+if ($email &&
+    ($email_maintainer + $email_list + $email_subscriber_list +
+     $email_git + $email_git_oe_chiefs + $email_git_blame) == 0) {
+    die "$P: Please select at least 1 email option\n";
+}
+
+## Read MAINTAINERS for type/value pairs
+
+my @typevalue = ();
+my %keyword_hash;
+
+if (open (my $maint, '<', "${lk_path}MAINTAINERS")) {
+        while (<$maint>) {
+                my $line = $_;
+
+                if ($line =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/) {
+                        my $type = $1;
+                        my $value = $2;
+
+                        ##Filename pattern matching
+                        if ($type eq "F" || $type eq "X") {
+                                $value =~ s@\.@\\\.@g;       ##Convert . to \.
+                                $value =~ s/\*/\.\*/g;       ##Convert * to .*
+                                $value =~ s/\?/\./g;         ##Convert ? to .
+                                ##if pattern is a directory and it lacks a
+                                ##trailing slash, add one
+                                if ((-d $value)) {
+                                        $value =~ s@([^/])$@$1/@;
+                                }
+                        } elsif ($type eq "K") {
+                                $keyword_hash{@typevalue} = $value;
+                        }
+                        push(@typevalue, "$type:$value");
+                } elsif (!/^(\s)*$/) {
+                        $line =~ s/\n$//g;
+                        push(@typevalue, $line);
+                }
+        }
+        close($maint);
+}
+
+
+#
+# Read mail address map
+#
+
+my $mailmap;
+
+read_mailmap();
+
+sub read_mailmap {
+    $mailmap = {
+	names => {},
+	addresses => {}
+    };
+
+    return if (!$email_use_mailmap || !(-f "${lk_path}.mailmap"));
+
+    open(my $mailmap_file, '<', "${lk_path}.mailmap")
+	or warn "$P: Can't open .mailmap: $!\n";
+
+    while (<$mailmap_file>) {
+	s/#.*$//; #strip comments
+	s/^\s+|\s+$//g; #trim
+
+	next if (/^\s*$/); #skip empty lines
+	#entries have one of the following formats:
+	# name1 <mail1>
+	# <mail1> <mail2>
+	# name1 <mail1> <mail2>
+	# name1 <mail1> name2 <mail2>
+	# (see man git-shortlog)
+
+	if (/^([^<]+)<([^>]+)>$/) {
+	    my $real_name = $1;
+	    my $address = $2;
+
+	    $real_name =~ s/\s+$//;
+	    ($real_name, $address) = parse_email("$real_name <$address>");
+	    $mailmap->{names}->{$address} = $real_name;
+
+	} elsif (/^<([^>]+)>\s*<([^>]+)>$/) {
+	    my $real_address = $1;
+	    my $wrong_address = $2;
+
+	    $mailmap->{addresses}->{$wrong_address} = $real_address;
+
+	} elsif (/^(.+)<([^>]+)>\s*<([^>]+)>$/) {
+	    my $real_name = $1;
+	    my $real_address = $2;
+	    my $wrong_address = $3;
+
+	    $real_name =~ s/\s+$//;
+	    ($real_name, $real_address) =
+		parse_email("$real_name <$real_address>");
+	    $mailmap->{names}->{$wrong_address} = $real_name;
+	    $mailmap->{addresses}->{$wrong_address} = $real_address;
+
+	} elsif (/^(.+)<([^>]+)>\s*(.+)\s*<([^>]+)>$/) {
+	    my $real_name = $1;
+	    my $real_address = $2;
+	    my $wrong_name = $3;
+	    my $wrong_address = $4;
+
+	    $real_name =~ s/\s+$//;
+	    ($real_name, $real_address) =
+		parse_email("$real_name <$real_address>");
+
+	    $wrong_name =~ s/\s+$//;
+	    ($wrong_name, $wrong_address) =
+		parse_email("$wrong_name <$wrong_address>");
+
+	    my $wrong_email = format_email($wrong_name, $wrong_address, 1);
+	    $mailmap->{names}->{$wrong_email} = $real_name;
+	    $mailmap->{addresses}->{$wrong_email} = $real_address;
+	}
+    }
+    close($mailmap_file);
+}
+
+## use the filenames on the command line or find the filenames in the patchfiles
+
+my @files = ();
+my @range = ();
+my @keyword_tvi = ();
+my @file_emails = ();
+
+if (!@ARGV) {
+    push(@ARGV, "&STDIN");
+}
+
+foreach my $file (@ARGV) {
+    if ($file ne "&STDIN") {
+	##if $file is a directory and it lacks a trailing slash, add one
+	if ((-d $file)) {
+	    $file =~ s@([^/])$@$1/@;
+	} elsif (!(-f $file)) {
+	    die "$P: file '${file}' not found\n";
+	}
+    }
+    if ($from_filename) {
+	push(@files, $file);
+	if ($file ne "MAINTAINERS" && -f $file && ($keywords || $file_emails)) {
+	    open(my $f, '<', $file)
+		or die "$P: Can't open $file: $!\n";
+	    my $text = do { local($/) ; <$f> };
+	    close($f);
+	    if ($keywords) {
+		foreach my $line (keys %keyword_hash) {
+		    if ($text =~ m/$keyword_hash{$line}/x) {
+			push(@keyword_tvi, $line);
+		    }
+		}
+	    }
+	    if ($file_emails) {
+		my @poss_addr = $text =~ m$[A-Za-zÀ-ÿ\"\' \,\.\+-]*\s*[\,]*\s*[\(\<\{]{0,1}[A-Za-z0-9_\.\+-]+\@[A-Za-z0-9\.-]+\.[A-Za-z0-9]+[\)\>\}]{0,1}$g;
+		push(@file_emails, clean_file_emails(@poss_addr));
+	    }
+	}
+    } else {
+	my $file_cnt = @files;
+	my $lastfile;
+
+	open(my $patch, "< $file")
+	    or die "$P: Can't open $file: $!\n";
+
+	# We can check arbitrary information before the patch
+	# like the commit message, mail headers, etc...
+	# This allows us to match arbitrary keywords against any part
+	# of a git format-patch generated file (subject tags, etc...)
+
+	my $patch_prefix = "";			#Parsing the intro
+
+	while (<$patch>) {
+	    my $patch_line = $_;
+	    if (m/^\+\+\+\s+(\S+)/ or m/^---\s+(\S+)/) {
+		my $filename = $1;
+		$filename =~ s@^[^/]*/@@;
+		$filename =~ s@\n@@;
+		$lastfile = $filename;
+		push(@files, $filename);
+		$patch_prefix = "^[+-].*";	#Now parsing the actual patch
+	    } elsif (m/^\@\@ -(\d+),(\d+)/) {
+		if ($email_git_blame) {
+		    push(@range, "$lastfile:$1:$2");
+		}
+	    } elsif ($keywords) {
+		foreach my $line (keys %keyword_hash) {
+		    if ($patch_line =~ m/${patch_prefix}$keyword_hash{$line}/x) {
+			push(@keyword_tvi, $line);
+		    }
+		}
+	    }
+	}
+	close($patch);
+
+	if ($file_cnt == @files) {
+	    warn "$P: file '${file}' doesn't appear to be a patch.  "
+		. "Add -f to options?\n";
+	}
+	@files = sort_and_uniq(@files);
+    }
+}
+
+@file_emails = uniq(@file_emails);
+
+my %email_hash_name;
+my %email_hash_address;
+my @email_to = ();
+my %hash_list_to;
+my @list_to = ();
+my @scm = ();
+my @web = ();
+my @subsystem = ();
+my @status = ();
+my %deduplicate_name_hash = ();
+my %deduplicate_address_hash = ();
+
+my @maintainers = get_maintainers();
+
+if (@maintainers) {
+    @maintainers = merge_email(@maintainers);
+    output(@maintainers);
+}
+
+if ($scm) {
+    @scm = uniq(@scm);
+    output(@scm);
+}
+
+if ($status) {
+    @status = uniq(@status);
+    output(@status);
+}
+
+if ($subsystem) {
+    @subsystem = uniq(@subsystem);
+    output(@subsystem);
+}
+
+if ($web) {
+    @web = uniq(@web);
+    output(@web);
+}
+
+exit($exit);
+
+sub range_is_maintained {
+    my ($start, $end) = @_;
+
+    for (my $i = $start; $i < $end; $i++) {
+	my $line = $typevalue[$i];
+	if ($line =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/) {
+	    my $type = $1;
+	    my $value = $2;
+	    if ($type eq 'S') {
+		if ($value =~ /(maintain|support)/i) {
+		    return 1;
+		}
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+sub range_has_maintainer {
+    my ($start, $end) = @_;
+
+    for (my $i = $start; $i < $end; $i++) {
+	my $line = $typevalue[$i];
+	if ($line =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/) {
+	    my $type = $1;
+	    my $value = $2;
+	    if ($type eq 'M') {
+		return 1;
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+sub get_maintainers {
+    %email_hash_name = ();
+    %email_hash_address = ();
+    %commit_author_hash = ();
+    %commit_signer_hash = ();
+    @email_to = ();
+    %hash_list_to = ();
+    @list_to = ();
+    @scm = ();
+    @web = ();
+    @subsystem = ();
+    @status = ();
+    %deduplicate_name_hash = ();
+    %deduplicate_address_hash = ();
+    if ($email_git_all_signature_types) {
+	$signature_pattern = "(.+?)[Bb][Yy]:";
+    } else {
+	$signature_pattern = "\(" . join("|", @signature_tags) . "\)";
+    }
+
+    # Find responsible parties
+
+    my %exact_pattern_match_hash = ();
+
+    foreach my $file (@files) {
+
+	my %hash;
+	my $tvi = find_first_section();
+	while ($tvi < @typevalue) {
+	    my $start = find_starting_index($tvi);
+	    my $end = find_ending_index($tvi);
+	    my $exclude = 0;
+	    my $i;
+
+	    #Do not match excluded file patterns
+
+	    for ($i = $start; $i < $end; $i++) {
+		my $line = $typevalue[$i];
+		if ($line =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/) {
+		    my $type = $1;
+		    my $value = $2;
+		    if ($type eq 'X') {
+			if (file_match_pattern($file, $value)) {
+			    $exclude = 1;
+			    last;
+			}
+		    }
+		}
+	    }
+
+	    if (!$exclude) {
+		for ($i = $start; $i < $end; $i++) {
+		    my $line = $typevalue[$i];
+		    if ($line =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/) {
+			my $type = $1;
+			my $value = $2;
+			if ($type eq 'F') {
+			    if (file_match_pattern($file, $value)) {
+				my $value_pd = ($value =~ tr@/@@);
+				my $file_pd = ($file  =~ tr@/@@);
+				$value_pd++ if (substr($value,-1,1) ne "/");
+				$value_pd = -1 if ($value =~ /^\.\*/);
+				if ($value_pd >= $file_pd &&
+				    range_is_maintained($start, $end) &&
+				    range_has_maintainer($start, $end)) {
+				    $exact_pattern_match_hash{$file} = 1;
+				}
+				if ($pattern_depth == 0 ||
+				    (($file_pd - $value_pd) < $pattern_depth)) {
+				    $hash{$tvi} = $value_pd;
+				}
+			    }
+			} elsif ($type eq 'N') {
+			    if ($file =~ m/$value/x) {
+				$hash{$tvi} = 0;
+			    }
+			}
+		    }
+		}
+	    }
+	    $tvi = $end + 1;
+	}
+
+	foreach my $line (sort {$hash{$b} <=> $hash{$a}} keys %hash) {
+	    add_categories($line);
+	    if ($sections) {
+		my $i;
+		my $start = find_starting_index($line);
+		my $end = find_ending_index($line);
+		for ($i = $start; $i < $end; $i++) {
+		    my $line = $typevalue[$i];
+		    if ($line =~ /^[FX]:/) {		##Restore file patterns
+			$line =~ s/([^\\])\.([^\*])/$1\?$2/g;
+			$line =~ s/([^\\])\.$/$1\?/g;	##Convert . back to ?
+			$line =~ s/\\\./\./g;       	##Convert \. to .
+			$line =~ s/\.\*/\*/g;       	##Convert .* to *
+		    }
+		    $line =~ s/^([A-Z]):/$1:\t/g;
+		    print("$line\n");
+		}
+		print("\n");
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+
+    if ($keywords) {
+	@keyword_tvi = sort_and_uniq(@keyword_tvi);
+	foreach my $line (@keyword_tvi) {
+	    add_categories($line);
+	}
+    }
+
+    foreach my $email (@email_to, @list_to) {
+	$email->[0] = deduplicate_email($email->[0]);
+    }
+
+    foreach my $file (@files) {
+	if ($email &&
+	    ($email_git || ($email_git_fallback &&
+			    !$exact_pattern_match_hash{$file}))) {
+	    vcs_file_signoffs($file);
+	}
+	if ($email && $email_git_blame) {
+	    vcs_file_blame($file);
+	}
+    }
+
+    if ($email) {
+	foreach my $chief (@oe_chief) {
+	    if ($chief =~ m/^(.*):(.*)/) {
+		my $email_address;
+
+		$email_address = format_email($1, $2, $email_usename);
+		if ($email_git_oe_chiefs) {
+		    push(@email_to, [$email_address, 'chief penguin']);
+		} else {
+		    @email_to = grep($_->[0] !~ /${email_address}/, @email_to);
+		}
+	    }
+	}
+
+	foreach my $email (@file_emails) {
+	    my ($name, $address) = parse_email($email);
+
+	    my $tmp_email = format_email($name, $address, $email_usename);
+	    push_email_address($tmp_email, '');
+	    add_role($tmp_email, 'in file');
+	}
+    }
+
+    my @to = ();
+    if ($email || $email_list) {
+	if ($email) {
+	    @to = (@to, @email_to);
+	}
+	if ($email_list) {
+	    @to = (@to, @list_to);
+	}
+    }
+
+    if ($interactive) {
+	@to = interactive_get_maintainers(\@to);
+    }
+
+    return @to;
+}
+
+sub file_match_pattern {
+    my ($file, $pattern) = @_;
+    if (substr($pattern, -1) eq "/") {
+	if ($file =~ m@^$pattern@) {
+	    return 1;
+	}
+    } else {
+	if ($file =~ m@^$pattern@) {
+	    my $s1 = ($file =~ tr@/@@);
+	    my $s2 = ($pattern =~ tr@/@@);
+	    if ($s1 == $s2) {
+		return 1;
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+sub usage {
+    print <<EOT;
+usage: $P [options] patchfile
+       $P [options] -f file|directory
+version: $V
+
+MAINTAINER field selection options:
+  --email => print email address(es) if any
+    --git => include recent git \*-by: signers
+    --git-all-signature-types => include signers regardless of signature type
+        or use only ${signature_pattern} signers (default: $email_git_all_signature_types)
+    --git-fallback => use git when no exact MAINTAINERS pattern (default: $email_git_fallback)
+    --git-oe-chiefs => include ${oe_chiefs}
+    --git-min-signatures => number of signatures required (default: $email_git_min_signatures)
+    --git-max-maintainers => maximum maintainers to add (default: $email_git_max_maintainers)
+    --git-min-percent => minimum percentage of commits required (default: $email_git_min_percent)
+    --git-blame => use git blame to find modified commits for patch or file
+    --git-since => git history to use (default: $email_git_since)
+    --hg-since => hg history to use (default: $email_hg_since)
+    --interactive => display a menu (mostly useful if used with the --git option)
+    --m => include maintainer(s) if any
+    --n => include name 'Full Name <addr\@domain.tld>'
+    --l => include list(s) if any
+    --s => include subscriber only list(s) if any
+    --remove-duplicates => minimize duplicate email names/addresses
+    --roles => show roles (status:subsystem, git-signer, list, etc...)
+    --rolestats => show roles and statistics (commits/total_commits, %)
+    --file-emails => add email addresses found in -f file (default: 0 (off))
+  --scm => print SCM tree(s) if any
+  --status => print status if any
+  --subsystem => print subsystem name if any
+  --web => print website(s) if any
+
+Output type options:
+  --separator [, ] => separator for multiple entries on 1 line
+    using --separator also sets --nomultiline if --separator is not [, ]
+  --multiline => print 1 entry per line
+
+Other options:
+  --pattern-depth => Number of pattern directory traversals (default: 0 (all))
+  --keywords => scan patch for keywords (default: $keywords)
+  --sections => print all of the subsystem sections with pattern matches
+  --mailmap => use .mailmap file (default: $email_use_mailmap)
+  --version => show version
+  --help => show this help information
+
+Default options:
+  [--email --nogit --git-fallback --m --n --l --multiline -pattern-depth=0
+   --remove-duplicates --rolestats]
+
+Notes:
+  Using "-f directory" may give unexpected results:
+      Used with "--git", git signators for _all_ files in and below
+          directory are examined as git recurses directories.
+          Any specified X: (exclude) pattern matches are _not_ ignored.
+      Used with "--nogit", directory is used as a pattern match,
+          no individual file within the directory or subdirectory
+          is matched.
+      Used with "--git-blame", does not iterate all files in directory
+  Using "--git-blame" is slow and may add old committers and authors
+      that are no longer active maintainers to the output.
+  Using "--roles" or "--rolestats" with git send-email --cc-cmd or any
+      other automated tools that expect only ["name"] <email address>
+      may not work because of additional output after <email address>.
+  Using "--rolestats" and "--git-blame" shows the #/total=% commits,
+      not the percentage of the entire file authored.  # of commits is
+      not a good measure of amount of code authored.  1 major commit may
+      contain a thousand lines, 5 trivial commits may modify a single line.
+  If git is not installed, but mercurial (hg) is installed and an .hg
+      repository exists, the following options apply to mercurial:
+          --git,
+          --git-min-signatures, --git-max-maintainers, --git-min-percent, and
+          --git-blame
+      Use --hg-since not --git-since to control date selection
+  File ".get_maintainer.conf", if it exists in the source
+      directory, can change whatever get_maintainer defaults are desired.
+      Entries in this file can be any command line argument.
+      This file is prepended to any additional command line arguments.
+      Multiple lines and # comments are allowed.
+EOT
+}
+
+sub parse_email {
+    my ($formatted_email) = @_;
+
+    my $name = "";
+    my $address = "";
+
+    if ($formatted_email =~ /^([^<]+)<(.+\@.*)>.*$/) {
+	$name = $1;
+	$address = $2;
+    } elsif ($formatted_email =~ /^\s*<(.+\@\S*)>.*$/) {
+	$address = $1;
+    } elsif ($formatted_email =~ /^(.+\@\S*).*$/) {
+	$address = $1;
+    }
+
+    $name =~ s/^\s+|\s+$//g;
+    $name =~ s/^\"|\"$//g;
+    $address =~ s/^\s+|\s+$//g;
+
+    if ($name =~ /[^\w \-]/i) {  	 ##has "must quote" chars
+	$name =~ s/(?<!\\)"/\\"/g;       ##escape quotes
+	$name = "\"$name\"";
+    }
+
+    return ($name, $address);
+}
+
+sub format_email {
+    my ($name, $address, $usename) = @_;
+
+    my $formatted_email;
+
+    $name =~ s/^\s+|\s+$//g;
+    $name =~ s/^\"|\"$//g;
+    $address =~ s/^\s+|\s+$//g;
+
+    if ($name =~ /[^\w \-]/i) {          ##has "must quote" chars
+	$name =~ s/(?<!\\)"/\\"/g;       ##escape quotes
+	$name = "\"$name\"";
+    }
+
+    if ($usename) {
+	if ("$name" eq "") {
+	    $formatted_email = "$address";
+	} else {
+	    $formatted_email = "$name <$address>";
+	}
+    } else {
+	$formatted_email = $address;
+    }
+
+    return $formatted_email;
+}
+
+sub find_first_section {
+    my $index = 0;
+
+    while ($index < @typevalue) {
+	my $tv = $typevalue[$index];
+	if (($tv =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/)) {
+	    last;
+	}
+	$index++;
+    }
+
+    return $index;
+}
+
+sub find_starting_index {
+    my ($index) = @_;
+
+    while ($index > 0) {
+	my $tv = $typevalue[$index];
+	if (!($tv =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/)) {
+	    last;
+	}
+	$index--;
+    }
+
+    return $index;
+}
+
+sub find_ending_index {
+    my ($index) = @_;
+
+    while ($index < @typevalue) {
+	my $tv = $typevalue[$index];
+	if (!($tv =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/)) {
+	    last;
+	}
+	$index++;
+    }
+
+    return $index;
+}
+
+sub get_maintainer_role {
+    my ($index) = @_;
+
+    my $i;
+    my $start = find_starting_index($index);
+    my $end = find_ending_index($index);
+
+    my $role = "unknown";
+    my $subsystem = $typevalue[$start];
+    if (length($subsystem) > 20) {
+	$subsystem = substr($subsystem, 0, 17);
+	$subsystem =~ s/\s*$//;
+	$subsystem = $subsystem . "...";
+    }
+
+    for ($i = $start + 1; $i < $end; $i++) {
+	my $tv = $typevalue[$i];
+	if ($tv =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/) {
+	    my $ptype = $1;
+	    my $pvalue = $2;
+	    if ($ptype eq "S") {
+		$role = $pvalue;
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+
+    $role = lc($role);
+    if      ($role eq "supported") {
+	$role = "supporter";
+    } elsif ($role eq "maintained") {
+	$role = "maintainer";
+    } elsif ($role eq "odd fixes") {
+	$role = "odd fixer";
+    } elsif ($role eq "orphan") {
+	$role = "orphan minder";
+    } elsif ($role eq "obsolete") {
+	$role = "obsolete minder";
+    } elsif ($role eq "buried alive in reporters") {
+	$role = "chief penguin";
+    }
+
+    return $role . ":" . $subsystem;
+}
+
+sub get_list_role {
+    my ($index) = @_;
+
+    my $i;
+    my $start = find_starting_index($index);
+    my $end = find_ending_index($index);
+
+    my $subsystem = $typevalue[$start];
+    if (length($subsystem) > 20) {
+	$subsystem = substr($subsystem, 0, 17);
+	$subsystem =~ s/\s*$//;
+	$subsystem = $subsystem . "...";
+    }
+
+    if ($subsystem eq "THE REST") {
+	$subsystem = "";
+    }
+
+    return $subsystem;
+}
+
+sub add_categories {
+    my ($index) = @_;
+
+    my $i;
+    my $start = find_starting_index($index);
+    my $end = find_ending_index($index);
+
+    push(@subsystem, $typevalue[$start]);
+
+    for ($i = $start + 1; $i < $end; $i++) {
+	my $tv = $typevalue[$i];
+	if ($tv =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/) {
+	    my $ptype = $1;
+	    my $pvalue = $2;
+	    if ($ptype eq "L") {
+		my $list_address = $pvalue;
+		my $list_additional = "";
+		my $list_role = get_list_role($i);
+
+		if ($list_role ne "") {
+		    $list_role = ":" . $list_role;
+		}
+		if ($list_address =~ m/([^\s]+)\s+(.*)$/) {
+		    $list_address = $1;
+		    $list_additional = $2;
+		}
+		if ($list_additional =~ m/subscribers-only/) {
+		    if ($email_subscriber_list) {
+			if (!$hash_list_to{lc($list_address)}) {
+			    $hash_list_to{lc($list_address)} = 1;
+			    push(@list_to, [$list_address,
+					    "subscriber list${list_role}"]);
+			}
+		    }
+		} else {
+		    if ($email_list) {
+			if (!$hash_list_to{lc($list_address)}) {
+			    $hash_list_to{lc($list_address)} = 1;
+			    if ($list_additional =~ m/moderated/) {
+				push(@list_to, [$list_address,
+						"moderated list${list_role}"]);
+			    } else {
+				push(@list_to, [$list_address,
+						"open list${list_role}"]);
+			    }
+			}
+		    }
+		}
+	    } elsif ($ptype eq "M") {
+		my ($name, $address) = parse_email($pvalue);
+		if ($name eq "") {
+		    if ($i > 0) {
+			my $tv = $typevalue[$i - 1];
+			if ($tv =~ m/^(\C):\s*(.*)/) {
+			    if ($1 eq "P") {
+				$name = $2;
+				$pvalue = format_email($name, $address, $email_usename);
+			    }
+			}
+		    }
+		}
+		if ($email_maintainer) {
+		    my $role = get_maintainer_role($i);
+		    push_email_addresses($pvalue, $role);
+		}
+	    } elsif ($ptype eq "T") {
+		push(@scm, $pvalue);
+	    } elsif ($ptype eq "W") {
+		push(@web, $pvalue);
+	    } elsif ($ptype eq "S") {
+		push(@status, $pvalue);
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+}
+
+sub email_inuse {
+    my ($name, $address) = @_;
+
+    return 1 if (($name eq "") && ($address eq ""));
+    return 1 if (($name ne "") && exists($email_hash_name{lc($name)}));
+    return 1 if (($address ne "") && exists($email_hash_address{lc($address)}));
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+sub push_email_address {
+    my ($line, $role) = @_;
+
+    my ($name, $address) = parse_email($line);
+
+    if ($address eq "") {
+	return 0;
+    }
+
+    if (!$email_remove_duplicates) {
+	push(@email_to, [format_email($name, $address, $email_usename), $role]);
+    } elsif (!email_inuse($name, $address)) {
+	push(@email_to, [format_email($name, $address, $email_usename), $role]);
+	$email_hash_name{lc($name)}++ if ($name ne "");
+	$email_hash_address{lc($address)}++;
+    }
+
+    return 1;
+}
+
+sub push_email_addresses {
+    my ($address, $role) = @_;
+
+    my @address_list = ();
+
+    if (rfc822_valid($address)) {
+	push_email_address($address, $role);
+    } elsif (@address_list = rfc822_validlist($address)) {
+	my $array_count = shift(@address_list);
+	while (my $entry = shift(@address_list)) {
+	    push_email_address($entry, $role);
+	}
+    } else {
+	if (!push_email_address($address, $role)) {
+	    warn("Invalid MAINTAINERS address: '" . $address . "'\n");
+	}
+    }
+}
+
+sub add_role {
+    my ($line, $role) = @_;
+
+    my ($name, $address) = parse_email($line);
+    my $email = format_email($name, $address, $email_usename);
+
+    foreach my $entry (@email_to) {
+	if ($email_remove_duplicates) {
+	    my ($entry_name, $entry_address) = parse_email($entry->[0]);
+	    if (($name eq $entry_name || $address eq $entry_address)
+		&& ($role eq "" || !($entry->[1] =~ m/$role/))
+	    ) {
+		if ($entry->[1] eq "") {
+		    $entry->[1] = "$role";
+		} else {
+		    $entry->[1] = "$entry->[1],$role";
+		}
+	    }
+	} else {
+	    if ($email eq $entry->[0]
+		&& ($role eq "" || !($entry->[1] =~ m/$role/))
+	    ) {
+		if ($entry->[1] eq "") {
+		    $entry->[1] = "$role";
+		} else {
+		    $entry->[1] = "$entry->[1],$role";
+		}
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+}
+
+sub which {
+    my ($bin) = @_;
+
+    foreach my $path (split(/:/, $ENV{PATH})) {
+	if (-e "$path/$bin") {
+	    return "$path/$bin";
+	}
+    }
+
+    return "";
+}
+
+sub which_conf {
+    my ($conf) = @_;
+
+    foreach my $path (split(/:/, ".:$ENV{HOME}:.scripts")) {
+	if (-e "$path/$conf") {
+	    return "$path/$conf";
+	}
+    }
+
+    return "";
+}
+
+sub mailmap_email {
+    my ($line) = @_;
+
+    my ($name, $address) = parse_email($line);
+    my $email = format_email($name, $address, 1);
+    my $real_name = $name;
+    my $real_address = $address;
+
+    if (exists $mailmap->{names}->{$email} ||
+	exists $mailmap->{addresses}->{$email}) {
+	if (exists $mailmap->{names}->{$email}) {
+	    $real_name = $mailmap->{names}->{$email};
+	}
+	if (exists $mailmap->{addresses}->{$email}) {
+	    $real_address = $mailmap->{addresses}->{$email};
+	}
+    } else {
+	if (exists $mailmap->{names}->{$address}) {
+	    $real_name = $mailmap->{names}->{$address};
+	}
+	if (exists $mailmap->{addresses}->{$address}) {
+	    $real_address = $mailmap->{addresses}->{$address};
+	}
+    }
+    return format_email($real_name, $real_address, 1);
+}
+
+sub mailmap {
+    my (@addresses) = @_;
+
+    my @mapped_emails = ();
+    foreach my $line (@addresses) {
+	push(@mapped_emails, mailmap_email($line));
+    }
+    merge_by_realname(@mapped_emails) if ($email_use_mailmap);
+    return @mapped_emails;
+}
+
+sub merge_by_realname {
+    my %address_map;
+    my (@emails) = @_;
+
+    foreach my $email (@emails) {
+	my ($name, $address) = parse_email($email);
+	if (exists $address_map{$name}) {
+	    $address = $address_map{$name};
+	    $email = format_email($name, $address, 1);
+	} else {
+	    $address_map{$name} = $address;
+	}
+    }
+}
+
+sub git_execute_cmd {
+    my ($cmd) = @_;
+    my @lines = ();
+
+    my $output = `$cmd`;
+    $output =~ s/^\s*//gm;
+    @lines = split("\n", $output);
+
+    return @lines;
+}
+
+sub hg_execute_cmd {
+    my ($cmd) = @_;
+    my @lines = ();
+
+    my $output = `$cmd`;
+    @lines = split("\n", $output);
+
+    return @lines;
+}
+
+sub extract_formatted_signatures {
+    my (@signature_lines) = @_;
+
+    my @type = @signature_lines;
+
+    s/\s*(.*):.*/$1/ for (@type);
+
+    # cut -f2- -d":"
+    s/\s*.*:\s*(.+)\s*/$1/ for (@signature_lines);
+
+## Reformat email addresses (with names) to avoid badly written signatures
+
+    foreach my $signer (@signature_lines) {
+	$signer = deduplicate_email($signer);
+    }
+
+    return (\@type, \@signature_lines);
+}
+
+sub vcs_find_signers {
+    my ($cmd) = @_;
+    my $commits;
+    my @lines = ();
+    my @signatures = ();
+
+    @lines = &{$VCS_cmds{"execute_cmd"}}($cmd);
+
+    my $pattern = $VCS_cmds{"commit_pattern"};
+
+    $commits = grep(/$pattern/, @lines);	# of commits
+
+    @signatures = grep(/^[ \t]*${signature_pattern}.*\@.*$/, @lines);
+
+    return (0, @signatures) if !@signatures;
+
+    save_commits_by_author(@lines) if ($interactive);
+    save_commits_by_signer(@lines) if ($interactive);
+
+    if (!$email_git_oe_chiefs) {
+	@signatures = grep(!/${oe_chiefs}/i, @signatures);
+    }
+
+    my ($types_ref, $signers_ref) = extract_formatted_signatures(@signatures);
+
+    return ($commits, @$signers_ref);
+}
+
+sub vcs_find_author {
+    my ($cmd) = @_;
+    my @lines = ();
+
+    @lines = &{$VCS_cmds{"execute_cmd"}}($cmd);
+
+    if (!$email_git_oe_chiefs) {
+	@lines = grep(!/${oe_chiefs}/i, @lines);
+    }
+
+    return @lines if !@lines;
+
+    my @authors = ();
+    foreach my $line (@lines) {
+	if ($line =~ m/$VCS_cmds{"author_pattern"}/) {
+	    my $author = $1;
+	    my ($name, $address) = parse_email($author);
+	    $author = format_email($name, $address, 1);
+	    push(@authors, $author);
+	}
+    }
+
+    save_commits_by_author(@lines) if ($interactive);
+    save_commits_by_signer(@lines) if ($interactive);
+
+    return @authors;
+}
+
+sub vcs_save_commits {
+    my ($cmd) = @_;
+    my @lines = ();
+    my @commits = ();
+
+    @lines = &{$VCS_cmds{"execute_cmd"}}($cmd);
+
+    foreach my $line (@lines) {
+	if ($line =~ m/$VCS_cmds{"blame_commit_pattern"}/) {
+	    push(@commits, $1);
+	}
+    }
+
+    return @commits;
+}
+
+sub vcs_blame {
+    my ($file) = @_;
+    my $cmd;
+    my @commits = ();
+
+    return @commits if (!(-f $file));
+
+    if (@range && $VCS_cmds{"blame_range_cmd"} eq "") {
+	my @all_commits = ();
+
+	$cmd = $VCS_cmds{"blame_file_cmd"};
+	$cmd =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;		#interpolate $cmd
+	@all_commits = vcs_save_commits($cmd);
+
+	foreach my $file_range_diff (@range) {
+	    next if (!($file_range_diff =~ m/(.+):(.+):(.+)/));
+	    my $diff_file = $1;
+	    my $diff_start = $2;
+	    my $diff_length = $3;
+	    next if ("$file" ne "$diff_file");
+	    for (my $i = $diff_start; $i < $diff_start + $diff_length; $i++) {
+		push(@commits, $all_commits[$i]);
+	    }
+	}
+    } elsif (@range) {
+	foreach my $file_range_diff (@range) {
+	    next if (!($file_range_diff =~ m/(.+):(.+):(.+)/));
+	    my $diff_file = $1;
+	    my $diff_start = $2;
+	    my $diff_length = $3;
+	    next if ("$file" ne "$diff_file");
+	    $cmd = $VCS_cmds{"blame_range_cmd"};
+	    $cmd =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;		#interpolate $cmd
+	    push(@commits, vcs_save_commits($cmd));
+	}
+    } else {
+	$cmd = $VCS_cmds{"blame_file_cmd"};
+	$cmd =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;		#interpolate $cmd
+	@commits = vcs_save_commits($cmd);
+    }
+
+    foreach my $commit (@commits) {
+	$commit =~ s/^\^//g;
+    }
+
+    return @commits;
+}
+
+my $printed_novcs = 0;
+sub vcs_exists {
+    %VCS_cmds = %VCS_cmds_git;
+    return 1 if eval $VCS_cmds{"available"};
+    %VCS_cmds = %VCS_cmds_hg;
+    return 2 if eval $VCS_cmds{"available"};
+    %VCS_cmds = ();
+    if (!$printed_novcs) {
+	warn("$P: No supported VCS found.  Add --nogit to options?\n");
+	warn("Using a git repository produces better results.\n");
+	$printed_novcs = 1;
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+sub vcs_is_git {
+    vcs_exists();
+    return $vcs_used == 1;
+}
+
+sub vcs_is_hg {
+    return $vcs_used == 2;
+}
+
+sub interactive_get_maintainers {
+    my ($list_ref) = @_;
+    my @list = @$list_ref;
+
+    vcs_exists();
+
+    my %selected;
+    my %authored;
+    my %signed;
+    my $count = 0;
+    my $maintained = 0;
+    foreach my $entry (@list) {
+	$maintained = 1 if ($entry->[1] =~ /^(maintainer|supporter)/i);
+	$selected{$count} = 1;
+	$authored{$count} = 0;
+	$signed{$count} = 0;
+	$count++;
+    }
+
+    #menu loop
+    my $done = 0;
+    my $print_options = 0;
+    my $redraw = 1;
+    while (!$done) {
+	$count = 0;
+	if ($redraw) {
+	    printf STDERR "\n%1s %2s %-65s",
+			  "*", "#", "email/list and role:stats";
+	    if ($email_git ||
+		($email_git_fallback && !$maintained) ||
+		$email_git_blame) {
+		print STDERR "auth sign";
+	    }
+	    print STDERR "\n";
+	    foreach my $entry (@list) {
+		my $email = $entry->[0];
+		my $role = $entry->[1];
+		my $sel = "";
+		$sel = "*" if ($selected{$count});
+		my $commit_author = $commit_author_hash{$email};
+		my $commit_signer = $commit_signer_hash{$email};
+		my $authored = 0;
+		my $signed = 0;
+		$authored++ for (@{$commit_author});
+		$signed++ for (@{$commit_signer});
+		printf STDERR "%1s %2d %-65s", $sel, $count + 1, $email;
+		printf STDERR "%4d %4d", $authored, $signed
+		    if ($authored > 0 || $signed > 0);
+		printf STDERR "\n     %s\n", $role;
+		if ($authored{$count}) {
+		    my $commit_author = $commit_author_hash{$email};
+		    foreach my $ref (@{$commit_author}) {
+			print STDERR "     Author: @{$ref}[1]\n";
+		    }
+		}
+		if ($signed{$count}) {
+		    my $commit_signer = $commit_signer_hash{$email};
+		    foreach my $ref (@{$commit_signer}) {
+			print STDERR "     @{$ref}[2]: @{$ref}[1]\n";
+		    }
+		}
+
+		$count++;
+	    }
+	}
+	my $date_ref = \$email_git_since;
+	$date_ref = \$email_hg_since if (vcs_is_hg());
+	if ($print_options) {
+	    $print_options = 0;
+	    if (vcs_exists()) {
+		print STDERR <<EOT
+
+Version Control options:
+g  use git history      [$email_git]
+gf use git-fallback     [$email_git_fallback]
+b  use git blame        [$email_git_blame]
+bs use blame signatures [$email_git_blame_signatures]
+c# minimum commits      [$email_git_min_signatures]
+%# min percent          [$email_git_min_percent]
+d# history to use       [$$date_ref]
+x# max maintainers      [$email_git_max_maintainers]
+t  all signature types  [$email_git_all_signature_types]
+m  use .mailmap         [$email_use_mailmap]
+EOT
+	    }
+	    print STDERR <<EOT
+
+Additional options:
+0  toggle all
+tm toggle maintainers
+tg toggle git entries
+tl toggle open list entries
+ts toggle subscriber list entries
+f  emails in file       [$file_emails]
+k  keywords in file     [$keywords]
+r  remove duplicates    [$email_remove_duplicates]
+p# pattern match depth  [$pattern_depth]
+EOT
+	}
+	print STDERR
+"\n#(toggle), A#(author), S#(signed) *(all), ^(none), O(options), Y(approve): ";
+
+	my $input = <STDIN>;
+	chomp($input);
+
+	$redraw = 1;
+	my $rerun = 0;
+	my @wish = split(/[, ]+/, $input);
+	foreach my $nr (@wish) {
+	    $nr = lc($nr);
+	    my $sel = substr($nr, 0, 1);
+	    my $str = substr($nr, 1);
+	    my $val = 0;
+	    $val = $1 if $str =~ /^(\d+)$/;
+
+	    if ($sel eq "y") {
+		$interactive = 0;
+		$done = 1;
+		$output_rolestats = 0;
+		$output_roles = 0;
+		last;
+	    } elsif ($nr =~ /^\d+$/ && $nr > 0 && $nr <= $count) {
+		$selected{$nr - 1} = !$selected{$nr - 1};
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "*" || $sel eq '^') {
+		my $toggle = 0;
+		$toggle = 1 if ($sel eq '*');
+		for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
+		    $selected{$i} = $toggle;
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "0") {
+		for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
+		    $selected{$i} = !$selected{$i};
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "t") {
+		if (lc($str) eq "m") {
+		    for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
+			$selected{$i} = !$selected{$i}
+			    if ($list[$i]->[1] =~ /^(maintainer|supporter)/i);
+		    }
+		} elsif (lc($str) eq "g") {
+		    for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
+			$selected{$i} = !$selected{$i}
+			    if ($list[$i]->[1] =~ /^(author|commit|signer)/i);
+		    }
+		} elsif (lc($str) eq "l") {
+		    for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
+			$selected{$i} = !$selected{$i}
+			    if ($list[$i]->[1] =~ /^(open list)/i);
+		    }
+		} elsif (lc($str) eq "s") {
+		    for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
+			$selected{$i} = !$selected{$i}
+			    if ($list[$i]->[1] =~ /^(subscriber list)/i);
+		    }
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "a") {
+		if ($val > 0 && $val <= $count) {
+		    $authored{$val - 1} = !$authored{$val - 1};
+		} elsif ($str eq '*' || $str eq '^') {
+		    my $toggle = 0;
+		    $toggle = 1 if ($str eq '*');
+		    for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
+			$authored{$i} = $toggle;
+		    }
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "s") {
+		if ($val > 0 && $val <= $count) {
+		    $signed{$val - 1} = !$signed{$val - 1};
+		} elsif ($str eq '*' || $str eq '^') {
+		    my $toggle = 0;
+		    $toggle = 1 if ($str eq '*');
+		    for (my $i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
+			$signed{$i} = $toggle;
+		    }
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "o") {
+		$print_options = 1;
+		$redraw = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "g") {
+		if ($str eq "f") {
+		    bool_invert(\$email_git_fallback);
+		} else {
+		    bool_invert(\$email_git);
+		}
+		$rerun = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "b") {
+		if ($str eq "s") {
+		    bool_invert(\$email_git_blame_signatures);
+		} else {
+		    bool_invert(\$email_git_blame);
+		}
+		$rerun = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "c") {
+		if ($val > 0) {
+		    $email_git_min_signatures = $val;
+		    $rerun = 1;
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "x") {
+		if ($val > 0) {
+		    $email_git_max_maintainers = $val;
+		    $rerun = 1;
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "%") {
+		if ($str ne "" && $val >= 0) {
+		    $email_git_min_percent = $val;
+		    $rerun = 1;
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "d") {
+		if (vcs_is_git()) {
+		    $email_git_since = $str;
+		} elsif (vcs_is_hg()) {
+		    $email_hg_since = $str;
+		}
+		$rerun = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "t") {
+		bool_invert(\$email_git_all_signature_types);
+		$rerun = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "f") {
+		bool_invert(\$file_emails);
+		$rerun = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "r") {
+		bool_invert(\$email_remove_duplicates);
+		$rerun = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "m") {
+		bool_invert(\$email_use_mailmap);
+		read_mailmap();
+		$rerun = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "k") {
+		bool_invert(\$keywords);
+		$rerun = 1;
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "p") {
+		if ($str ne "" && $val >= 0) {
+		    $pattern_depth = $val;
+		    $rerun = 1;
+		}
+	    } elsif ($sel eq "h" || $sel eq "?") {
+		print STDERR <<EOT
+
+Interactive mode allows you to select the various maintainers, submitters,
+commit signers and mailing lists that could be CC'd on a patch.
+
+Any *'d entry is selected.
+
+If you have git or hg installed, you can choose to summarize the commit
+history of files in the patch.  Also, each line of the current file can
+be matched to its commit author and that commits signers with blame.
+
+Various knobs exist to control the length of time for active commit
+tracking, the maximum number of commit authors and signers to add,
+and such.
+
+Enter selections at the prompt until you are satisfied that the selected
+maintainers are appropriate.  You may enter multiple selections separated
+by either commas or spaces.
+
+EOT
+	    } else {
+		print STDERR "invalid option: '$nr'\n";
+		$redraw = 0;
+	    }
+	}
+	if ($rerun) {
+	    print STDERR "git-blame can be very slow, please have patience..."
+		if ($email_git_blame);
+	    goto &get_maintainers;
+	}
+    }
+
+    #drop not selected entries
+    $count = 0;
+    my @new_emailto = ();
+    foreach my $entry (@list) {
+	if ($selected{$count}) {
+	    push(@new_emailto, $list[$count]);
+	}
+	$count++;
+    }
+    return @new_emailto;
+}
+
+sub bool_invert {
+    my ($bool_ref) = @_;
+
+    if ($$bool_ref) {
+	$$bool_ref = 0;
+    } else {
+	$$bool_ref = 1;
+    }
+}
+
+sub deduplicate_email {
+    my ($email) = @_;
+
+    my $matched = 0;
+    my ($name, $address) = parse_email($email);
+    $email = format_email($name, $address, 1);
+    $email = mailmap_email($email);
+
+    return $email if (!$email_remove_duplicates);
+
+    ($name, $address) = parse_email($email);
+
+    if ($name ne "" && $deduplicate_name_hash{lc($name)}) {
+	$name = $deduplicate_name_hash{lc($name)}->[0];
+	$address = $deduplicate_name_hash{lc($name)}->[1];
+	$matched = 1;
+    } elsif ($deduplicate_address_hash{lc($address)}) {
+	$name = $deduplicate_address_hash{lc($address)}->[0];
+	$address = $deduplicate_address_hash{lc($address)}->[1];
+	$matched = 1;
+    }
+    if (!$matched) {
+	$deduplicate_name_hash{lc($name)} = [ $name, $address ];
+	$deduplicate_address_hash{lc($address)} = [ $name, $address ];
+    }
+    $email = format_email($name, $address, 1);
+    $email = mailmap_email($email);
+    return $email;
+}
+
+sub save_commits_by_author {
+    my (@lines) = @_;
+
+    my @authors = ();
+    my @commits = ();
+    my @subjects = ();
+
+    foreach my $line (@lines) {
+	if ($line =~ m/$VCS_cmds{"author_pattern"}/) {
+	    my $author = $1;
+	    $author = deduplicate_email($author);
+	    push(@authors, $author);
+	}
+	push(@commits, $1) if ($line =~ m/$VCS_cmds{"commit_pattern"}/);
+	push(@subjects, $1) if ($line =~ m/$VCS_cmds{"subject_pattern"}/);
+    }
+
+    for (my $i = 0; $i < @authors; $i++) {
+	my $exists = 0;
+	foreach my $ref(@{$commit_author_hash{$authors[$i]}}) {
+	    if (@{$ref}[0] eq $commits[$i] &&
+		@{$ref}[1] eq $subjects[$i]) {
+		$exists = 1;
+		last;
+	    }
+	}
+	if (!$exists) {
+	    push(@{$commit_author_hash{$authors[$i]}},
+		 [ ($commits[$i], $subjects[$i]) ]);
+	}
+    }
+}
+
+sub save_commits_by_signer {
+    my (@lines) = @_;
+
+    my $commit = "";
+    my $subject = "";
+
+    foreach my $line (@lines) {
+	$commit = $1 if ($line =~ m/$VCS_cmds{"commit_pattern"}/);
+	$subject = $1 if ($line =~ m/$VCS_cmds{"subject_pattern"}/);
+	if ($line =~ /^[ \t]*${signature_pattern}.*\@.*$/) {
+	    my @signatures = ($line);
+	    my ($types_ref, $signers_ref) = extract_formatted_signatures(@signatures);
+	    my @types = @$types_ref;
+	    my @signers = @$signers_ref;
+
+	    my $type = $types[0];
+	    my $signer = $signers[0];
+
+	    $signer = deduplicate_email($signer);
+
+	    my $exists = 0;
+	    foreach my $ref(@{$commit_signer_hash{$signer}}) {
+		if (@{$ref}[0] eq $commit &&
+		    @{$ref}[1] eq $subject &&
+		    @{$ref}[2] eq $type) {
+		    $exists = 1;
+		    last;
+		}
+	    }
+	    if (!$exists) {
+		push(@{$commit_signer_hash{$signer}},
+		     [ ($commit, $subject, $type) ]);
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+}
+
+sub vcs_assign {
+    my ($role, $divisor, @lines) = @_;
+
+    my %hash;
+    my $count = 0;
+
+    return if (@lines <= 0);
+
+    if ($divisor <= 0) {
+	warn("Bad divisor in " . (caller(0))[3] . ": $divisor\n");
+	$divisor = 1;
+    }
+
+    @lines = mailmap(@lines);
+
+    return if (@lines <= 0);
+
+    @lines = sort(@lines);
+
+    # uniq -c
+    $hash{$_}++ for @lines;
+
+    # sort -rn
+    foreach my $line (sort {$hash{$b} <=> $hash{$a}} keys %hash) {
+	my $sign_offs = $hash{$line};
+	my $percent = $sign_offs * 100 / $divisor;
+
+	$percent = 100 if ($percent > 100);
+	$count++;
+	last if ($sign_offs < $email_git_min_signatures ||
+		 $count > $email_git_max_maintainers ||
+		 $percent < $email_git_min_percent);
+	push_email_address($line, '');
+	if ($output_rolestats) {
+	    my $fmt_percent = sprintf("%.0f", $percent);
+	    add_role($line, "$role:$sign_offs/$divisor=$fmt_percent%");
+	} else {
+	    add_role($line, $role);
+	}
+    }
+}
+
+sub vcs_file_signoffs {
+    my ($file) = @_;
+
+    my @signers = ();
+    my $commits;
+
+    $vcs_used = vcs_exists();
+    return if (!$vcs_used);
+
+    my $cmd = $VCS_cmds{"find_signers_cmd"};
+    $cmd =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;		# interpolate $cmd
+
+    ($commits, @signers) = vcs_find_signers($cmd);
+
+    foreach my $signer (@signers) {
+	$signer = deduplicate_email($signer);
+    }
+
+    vcs_assign("commit_signer", $commits, @signers);
+}
+
+sub vcs_file_blame {
+    my ($file) = @_;
+
+    my @signers = ();
+    my @all_commits = ();
+    my @commits = ();
+    my $total_commits;
+    my $total_lines;
+
+    $vcs_used = vcs_exists();
+    return if (!$vcs_used);
+
+    @all_commits = vcs_blame($file);
+    @commits = uniq(@all_commits);
+    $total_commits = @commits;
+    $total_lines = @all_commits;
+
+    if ($email_git_blame_signatures) {
+	if (vcs_is_hg()) {
+	    my $commit_count;
+	    my @commit_signers = ();
+	    my $commit = join(" -r ", @commits);
+	    my $cmd;
+
+	    $cmd = $VCS_cmds{"find_commit_signers_cmd"};
+	    $cmd =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;	#substitute variables in $cmd
+
+	    ($commit_count, @commit_signers) = vcs_find_signers($cmd);
+
+	    push(@signers, @commit_signers);
+	} else {
+	    foreach my $commit (@commits) {
+		my $commit_count;
+		my @commit_signers = ();
+		my $cmd;
+
+		$cmd = $VCS_cmds{"find_commit_signers_cmd"};
+		$cmd =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;	#substitute variables in $cmd
+
+		($commit_count, @commit_signers) = vcs_find_signers($cmd);
+
+		push(@signers, @commit_signers);
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+
+    if ($from_filename) {
+	if ($output_rolestats) {
+	    my @blame_signers;
+	    if (vcs_is_hg()) {{		# Double brace for last exit
+		my $commit_count;
+		my @commit_signers = ();
+		@commits = uniq(@commits);
+		@commits = sort(@commits);
+		my $commit = join(" -r ", @commits);
+		my $cmd;
+
+		$cmd = $VCS_cmds{"find_commit_author_cmd"};
+		$cmd =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;	#substitute variables in $cmd
+
+		my @lines = ();
+
+		@lines = &{$VCS_cmds{"execute_cmd"}}($cmd);
+
+		if (!$email_git_oe_chiefs) {
+		    @lines = grep(!/${oe_chiefs}/i, @lines);
+		}
+
+		last if !@lines;
+
+		my @authors = ();
+		foreach my $line (@lines) {
+		    if ($line =~ m/$VCS_cmds{"author_pattern"}/) {
+			my $author = $1;
+			$author = deduplicate_email($author);
+			push(@authors, $author);
+		    }
+		}
+
+		save_commits_by_author(@lines) if ($interactive);
+		save_commits_by_signer(@lines) if ($interactive);
+
+		push(@signers, @authors);
+	    }}
+	    else {
+		foreach my $commit (@commits) {
+		    my $i;
+		    my $cmd = $VCS_cmds{"find_commit_author_cmd"};
+		    $cmd =~ s/(\$\w+)/$1/eeg;	#interpolate $cmd
+		    my @author = vcs_find_author($cmd);
+		    next if !@author;
+
+		    my $formatted_author = deduplicate_email($author[0]);
+
+		    my $count = grep(/$commit/, @all_commits);
+		    for ($i = 0; $i < $count ; $i++) {
+			push(@blame_signers, $formatted_author);
+		    }
+		}
+	    }
+	    if (@blame_signers) {
+		vcs_assign("authored lines", $total_lines, @blame_signers);
+	    }
+	}
+	foreach my $signer (@signers) {
+	    $signer = deduplicate_email($signer);
+	}
+	vcs_assign("commits", $total_commits, @signers);
+    } else {
+	foreach my $signer (@signers) {
+	    $signer = deduplicate_email($signer);
+	}
+	vcs_assign("modified commits", $total_commits, @signers);
+    }
+}
+
+sub uniq {
+    my (@parms) = @_;
+
+    my %saw;
+    @parms = grep(!$saw{$_}++, @parms);
+    return @parms;
+}
+
+sub sort_and_uniq {
+    my (@parms) = @_;
+
+    my %saw;
+    @parms = sort @parms;
+    @parms = grep(!$saw{$_}++, @parms);
+    return @parms;
+}
+
+sub clean_file_emails {
+    my (@file_emails) = @_;
+    my @fmt_emails = ();
+
+    foreach my $email (@file_emails) {
+	$email =~ s/[\(\<\{]{0,1}([A-Za-z0-9_\.\+-]+\@[A-Za-z0-9\.-]+)[\)\>\}]{0,1}/\<$1\>/g;
+	my ($name, $address) = parse_email($email);
+	if ($name eq '"[,\.]"') {
+	    $name = "";
+	}
+
+	my @nw = split(/[^A-Za-zÀ-ÿ\'\,\.\+-]/, $name);
+	if (@nw > 2) {
+	    my $first = $nw[@nw - 3];
+	    my $middle = $nw[@nw - 2];
+	    my $last = $nw[@nw - 1];
+
+	    if (((length($first) == 1 && $first =~ m/[A-Za-z]/) ||
+		 (length($first) == 2 && substr($first, -1) eq ".")) ||
+		(length($middle) == 1 ||
+		 (length($middle) == 2 && substr($middle, -1) eq "."))) {
+		$name = "$first $middle $last";
+	    } else {
+		$name = "$middle $last";
+	    }
+	}
+
+	if (substr($name, -1) =~ /[,\.]/) {
+	    $name = substr($name, 0, length($name) - 1);
+	} elsif (substr($name, -2) =~ /[,\.]"/) {
+	    $name = substr($name, 0, length($name) - 2) . '"';
+	}
+
+	if (substr($name, 0, 1) =~ /[,\.]/) {
+	    $name = substr($name, 1, length($name) - 1);
+	} elsif (substr($name, 0, 2) =~ /"[,\.]/) {
+	    $name = '"' . substr($name, 2, length($name) - 2);
+	}
+
+	my $fmt_email = format_email($name, $address, $email_usename);
+	push(@fmt_emails, $fmt_email);
+    }
+    return @fmt_emails;
+}
+
+sub merge_email {
+    my @lines;
+    my %saw;
+
+    for (@_) {
+	my ($address, $role) = @$_;
+	if (!$saw{$address}) {
+	    if ($output_roles) {
+		push(@lines, "$address ($role)");
+	    } else {
+		push(@lines, $address);
+	    }
+	    $saw{$address} = 1;
+	}
+    }
+
+    return @lines;
+}
+
+sub output {
+    my (@parms) = @_;
+
+    if ($output_multiline) {
+	foreach my $line (@parms) {
+	    print("${line}\n");
+	}
+    } else {
+	print(join($output_separator, @parms));
+	print("\n");
+    }
+}
+
+my $rfc822re;
+
+sub make_rfc822re {
+#   Basic lexical tokens are specials, domain_literal, quoted_string, atom, and
+#   comment.  We must allow for rfc822_lwsp (or comments) after each of these.
+#   This regexp will only work on addresses which have had comments stripped
+#   and replaced with rfc822_lwsp.
+
+    my $specials = '()<>@,;:\\\\".\\[\\]';
+    my $controls = '\\000-\\037\\177';
+
+    my $dtext = "[^\\[\\]\\r\\\\]";
+    my $domain_literal = "\\[(?:$dtext|\\\\.)*\\]$rfc822_lwsp*";
+
+    my $quoted_string = "\"(?:[^\\\"\\r\\\\]|\\\\.|$rfc822_lwsp)*\"$rfc822_lwsp*";
+
+#   Use zero-width assertion to spot the limit of an atom.  A simple
+#   $rfc822_lwsp* causes the regexp engine to hang occasionally.
+    my $atom = "[^$specials $controls]+(?:$rfc822_lwsp+|\\Z|(?=[\\[\"$specials]))";
+    my $word = "(?:$atom|$quoted_string)";
+    my $localpart = "$word(?:\\.$rfc822_lwsp*$word)*";
+
+    my $sub_domain = "(?:$atom|$domain_literal)";
+    my $domain = "$sub_domain(?:\\.$rfc822_lwsp*$sub_domain)*";
+
+    my $addr_spec = "$localpart\@$rfc822_lwsp*$domain";
+
+    my $phrase = "$word*";
+    my $route = "(?:\@$domain(?:,\@$rfc822_lwsp*$domain)*:$rfc822_lwsp*)";
+    my $route_addr = "\\<$rfc822_lwsp*$route?$addr_spec\\>$rfc822_lwsp*";
+    my $mailbox = "(?:$addr_spec|$phrase$route_addr)";
+
+    my $group = "$phrase:$rfc822_lwsp*(?:$mailbox(?:,\\s*$mailbox)*)?;\\s*";
+    my $address = "(?:$mailbox|$group)";
+
+    return "$rfc822_lwsp*$address";
+}
+
+sub rfc822_strip_comments {
+    my $s = shift;
+#   Recursively remove comments, and replace with a single space.  The simpler
+#   regexps in the Email Addressing FAQ are imperfect - they will miss escaped
+#   chars in atoms, for example.
+
+    while ($s =~ s/^((?:[^"\\]|\\.)*
+                    (?:"(?:[^"\\]|\\.)*"(?:[^"\\]|\\.)*)*)
+                    \((?:[^()\\]|\\.)*\)/$1 /osx) {}
+    return $s;
+}
+
+#   valid: returns true if the parameter is an RFC822 valid address
+#
+sub rfc822_valid {
+    my $s = rfc822_strip_comments(shift);
+
+    if (!$rfc822re) {
+        $rfc822re = make_rfc822re();
+    }
+
+    return $s =~ m/^$rfc822re$/so && $s =~ m/^$rfc822_char*$/;
+}
+
+#   validlist: In scalar context, returns true if the parameter is an RFC822
+#              valid list of addresses.
+#
+#              In list context, returns an empty list on failure (an invalid
+#              address was found); otherwise a list whose first element is the
+#              number of addresses found and whose remaining elements are the
+#              addresses.  This is needed to disambiguate failure (invalid)
+#              from success with no addresses found, because an empty string is
+#              a valid list.
+
+sub rfc822_validlist {
+    my $s = rfc822_strip_comments(shift);
+
+    if (!$rfc822re) {
+        $rfc822re = make_rfc822re();
+    }
+    # * null list items are valid according to the RFC
+    # * the '1' business is to aid in distinguishing failure from no results
+
+    my @r;
+    if ($s =~ m/^(?:$rfc822re)?(?:,(?:$rfc822re)?)*$/so &&
+	$s =~ m/^$rfc822_char*$/) {
+        while ($s =~ m/(?:^|,$rfc822_lwsp*)($rfc822re)/gos) {
+            push(@r, $1);
+        }
+        return wantarray ? (scalar(@r), @r) : 1;
+    }
+    return wantarray ? () : 0;
+}